In a paradoxical twist of the sort that makes astrophysics special, NGC 1052-DF2's lack of dark matter is potentially a good thing for the theory as a whole. What has scientists so curious about this galaxy is that it is unusually transparent and appears to contain no dark matter. It is also thought to be more abundant than regular matter, with dark matter making up 27 percent of the mass and energy of the universe compared to just 5 percent for the matter that we can see.
Although it has never been directly observed, scientists are confident that this elusive material exists because of the gravitational effects it appears to have on astronomical objects. "It's so rare, particularly these days after so many years of Hubble, that you get an image of something and you say, 'I've never seen that before.' This thing is astonishing: a enormous blob that you can look through".
Now, while using a new telescope, known as the Dragonfly Telescope Array, astronomers looking for faint, hard-to-find objects out in the universe, have found what they call an "Ultra-Diffuse Galaxy", named NGC1052-DF2 (DF2 for short), which has them scratching their collective heads. To understand more, Roberto Abraham and Pieter van Dokkum, armed with their incredible telescope, are already looking for other similar galaxies. In other words, dark matter doesn't seem to be exerting its gravity on normal matter in that galaxy.
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If you look around and out at the stars, what you see - and what astronomers can see using complex telescopes - accounts for just five per cent of what is contained in the universe. Now, however, researchers have found a galaxy that seems to have no dark matter at all.
Astronomers first discovered the galaxy in 2000 as a smudge on old photographic plates. It is classified as an ultra-diffuse galaxy, a kind first recognized in 2015.
Therefore, researchers were surprised when they uncovered a galaxy that is missing most, if not all, of its dark matter.
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And, yet, scientists using telescopes atop Maunakea found one galaxy that has nearly none at all. At the observatory William Myron Keck on the island of Hawaii, they measured the mass of this galaxy. NGC1052-DF2 does reside in a region where such things could conceivably occur, lying near a giant elliptical galaxy with a supermassive black hole at its heart. Yet in this unusual galaxy, the projected signatures of these exotic effects are not seen.
Oddly enough, this galaxy with very little dark matter actually helps to confirm the existence of dark matter.
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The researchers suggest that the somewhat-odd appearance of the globular clusters is probably related to the galaxy's unexpected properties, and they announced they're working on a paper that will describe those. Already have suspicions of three, whom they will notice better. Imaging them enabled the research study group to establish their activities orbiting the galaxy, which could, consequently, give an action of the quantity of mass that is associated with maintaining the things in position. "But for now, I think the evidence for dark matter greatly outweighs the evidence against it". If it has no dark matter, how did it even evolve into a galaxy? Future observatories under construction, such as the European Extremely Large Telescope in Chile's Atacama Desert, or NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, should be able to take such measurements.